Abstract: The external plantation shutters online have the excellent function of effectively reducing the radiant heat of the window in summer and effectively reducing the heat dissipation of the window in winter. The types and applicable materials are also colorful.
The type and material suitable for each climatic zone can be selected according to the corresponding climatic conditions, so as to achieve the purpose of effective energy saving. Outer plantation shutters online are low-tech and efficient.
The energy-saving characteristics of the application make it widely popular in today’s society that advocates saving and energy-saving.
Key words: external plantation shutters online; sunshade; heat preservation; energy saving
Among the building envelope structural components, windows are the components with the worst thermal insulation performance and the weakest thermal insulation. The common window material is ordinary transparent glass with a thickness of 3~5 mm, which can transmit more visible light (88%~90%), so it can pass through a large amount of solar radiation (77%~86%). Due to the low thermal resistance of ordinary glass [R=0.16 (m2·K)/W], the heat transfer between indoor and outdoor in the form of heat conduction, convection and radiation through windows is faster than that of other solid envelope structures of buildings. many. It can be seen that effectively controlling the heat transfer of the windows is a key factor in the energy saving of the whole building. The way to reduce the radiant heat of the window in summer is to provide effective shading, and the way to reduce the heat of the window in winter is to increase its protection.
External plantation shutters online are components with dual functions of shading and heat preservation, and have the remarkable characteristics of low technology and high efficiency, and have been widely used in Europe. External plantation shutters online are rarely used in my country, and the commonly used domestic plantation shutters online are sunshade plantation shutters online placed in windows. Such interior plantation shutters online are only effective for shading and do little to reduce radiant heat gain. Because the heat radiation will directly reach the glass surface and enter the room through the glass, it will also heat up the shading member and dissipate heat to the room in the form of long-wave radiation and convection.
In summer, the sunshade device outside the window can greatly reduce the radiant heat reaching the glass, especially the direct radiation, because when the sun shines on the sunshade member, part of the light will be reflected; It is reflected on the glass, and the rest is absorbed by the shading facility itself, the temperature rises, and the facility itself dissipates part of the heat in the form of convection and radiation, thus making the influence of solar radiation on the indoor temperature smaller. In winter, especially in cold climate regions, if the plantation shutters online are used in combination with thermal insulation window panels, it will play a good role in thermal insulation. When direct sunlight needs to enter the room during the day in winter, open the window panels and plantation shutters online to increase the indoor thermal effect. At night, draw the plantation shutters online, and then close the thermal insulation window panels to form a thermal insulation effect that effectively reduces heat loss.
There are various types of plantation shutters online, which can be generally classified into plantation shutters online, movable plantation shutters online, combined movable plantation shutters online, fixed plantation shutters online, window panels and special plantation shutters online.
The application feature of the venetian plantation shutters online (the pull-up part in Figure 1) is that the angle of the blades can be adjusted according to the height angle of the sun, and the height of the pull-up can be freely controlled, which can not only shade the sun, but also adjust the size and direction of the airflow as needed. When not in use, it can be pulled up completely without affecting lighting and ventilation. After it is completely put down and closed, it has certain wind shielding and thermal insulation functions. If it is used with window panels, it will receive better wind shielding and thermal insulation effects.
This kind of plantation shutters online has tracks on both sides of the window sash, which can be pushed up or down when in use, occupies a small space, and can adjust the shading according to needs, which is suitable for the case where the window is not too large.
The track is up and down and can be installed in the wall or along the outer wall according to the size of the window. If the window is not large, the track can be installed in the wall. Pull out when in use, push in when not in use, and do not occupy external space. If the window is larger, or the floor-to-ceiling window, the track is installed along the outer wall. 2.2.3 The opening and closing method of the casement type is similar to that of the casement window, which can not only provide horizontal sunshade, but also the position of the window sash can be adjusted as required to meet the vertical shading of a certain angle.
2.2.4 Horizontal Folding
Its characteristics are that it occupies a small space, can easily control the position in the horizontal direction, and is suitable for various window shading systems. Can effectively block the sunlight from the upper, morning and afternoon as needed.
The opening method is similar to the top-hung window. The shading member is either a louver or a baffle, which can effectively block the sunlight from the upper part and the west.
2.3 Fixed plantation shutters online
2.3.1 Plantation shutters online with fixed blades
This kind of plantation shutters online has a fixed sunshade, and the blades cannot be adjusted. It is often used for ventilation windows at the top of buildings.
2.3.2 The position of the blade is fixed, but the blade itself can be rotated to adjust the fixed sunshade. There are two systems, vertical and horizontal, depending on the blade orientation.
2.4 Combined plantation shutters online
The combined movable plantation shutters online is based on the movable plantation shutters online, and the movable leaf fan is designed to be more convenient to open, so that not only the sunshade is more flexible and convenient, but also the ventilation can be adjusted more freely and the air flow can be controlled according to the needs.
(1) The combination of sliding window and top-hung window. Set the top-hung window in the sash of the sliding window.
(2) The combination of casement windows and top-hung windows. The upper-hung window is arranged in the sash of the casement window.
(3) The combination of fixed plantation shutters online and other types of movable plantation shutters online. Such as the combination of fixed plantation shutters online and flat plantation shutters online, sliding plantation shutters online, hanging plantation shutters online, etc.
2.5 Window panels
The feature of the window panel is that when it is opened, the window can receive heat radiation, and when it is closed, it can completely block light, and at the same time, it has a certain function of shielding wind and heat preservation.
(1) Casement type: open the part as shown in Figure 1, it is suitable for buildings with small windows and low floors.
(2) Horizontal folding type: suitable for buildings with large windows and high-rise buildings.
(3) Horizontal push-pull folding type: When the window is particularly large, rails can be installed up and down the horizontal folding blade to form a horizontal push-pull folding type.
2.6 Special plantation shutters online
In addition to the above-mentioned plantation shutters online with the functions of shading, heat preservation, heat insulation and ventilation regulation, there are also plantation shutters online with special functions.
2.6.1 Rain plantation shutters online
It has the functions of preventing rainwater from splashing in and regulating ventilation. There are two types of single-layer and double-layer, the double-layer not only has the function of rainproof, but also has the function of thermal insulation. Rainproof plantation shutters online are suitable for computer rooms, workshops and other public buildings such as gymnasiums and theaters that have ventilation requirements all the year round.
2.6.2 Sand plantation shutters online
In addition to the advantages and functions of rain-proof plantation shutters online, it also has the functions of catching and collecting dust, which provides a reliable guarantee for ventilation in areas with large sandstorms.
2.6.3 Air purifying plantation shutters online
This kind of plantation shutters online has a protective layer formed by photocatalyst on the surface of the material body. The protective layer is irradiated by ultraviolet light to stimulate free radicals to decompose and absorb organic substances in the air, so that harmful chemical substances in the air disappear, so as to improve the The quality of the ambient air, so it has the function of clean air. Suitable for buildings such as hospitals and nursing homes.
2.6.4 Fireproof and anti-corrosion plantation shutters online
The substrate is composed of glass fiber filaments and glass fiber cotton impregnated with resin material to penetrate into its tissue and then fixed and formed, and its surface is covered with a layer of covering film. This kind of plantation shutters online blade material has the characteristics of light weight, non-flammability and anti-corrosion, and has the functions of fire prevention and anti-corrosion. It is suitable for workshops producing flammable and corrosive substances.
3 Plantation shutters online suitable for different climate zones
My country’s “Code for Thermal Engineering Design of Civil Buildings” divides the climate in various parts of my country into five categories from the perspective of thermal engineering design of buildings. Different climatic areas can choose the corresponding external plantation shutters online form according to the actual climatic conditions.
3.1 Plantation shutters online and materials in severe cold climate areas
The areas where the average temperature of the coldest month is less than or equal to -10 °C, and the number of days when the average daily temperature is less than or equal to 5 °C is greater than 145 days. The buildings in this area should fully meet the winter thermal insulation design requirements, strengthen the cold protection measures of the buildings, and generally do not need to consider the summer heat protection design requirements. Depending on the climatic characteristics of the region, winter insulation is key. It is most suitable to choose a window panel with a certain thermal insulation function. Common materials can be wood and bamboo. For example, a window panel made of thermal insulation materials such as rock wool and glass wool will receive better thermal insulation effect. In addition, although the winter in this climatic zone is long and cold, the western sun in summer is also very strong, so if there is a western window, you can choose a combination of window panels and plantation shutters online, so that in the summer afternoon, you can The interior provides shade and softens the light by avoiding glare. Because this area should be dominated by heat radiation in winter, darker colors can be selected for the surface of window panels and plantation shutters online, and the surface texture should be flat but not smooth, so as to ensure the most heat radiation during the day in winter.
3.2 Plantation shutters online and materials in cold climates
The average temperature of the coldest month over the years is -10～0℃, and the number of days when the average daily temperature is ≤5℃ is 90～145 days. Buildings in this area should meet the design requirements of thermal insulation in winter, and some areas need to take into account the heat protection in summer. According to the climatic characteristics of this area, except for the north and east facing windows, the combination of window panels and plantation shutters online or the combination of window panels and movable plantation shutters online is the most suitable. Only window panels are installed in the north and east directions, especially the window panels composed of thermal insulation materials, which can effectively resist the cold winds blow from the north in winter. In this climate zone, the surface color of the material used for the plantation shutters online should be dark, flat and smooth, which can ensure its strong radiation absorption ability in winter and good reflection effect in summer, while the surface treatment of the window panel is different from severely cold areas are similar and should be flat and not smooth.
3.3 Plantation shutters online and materials in the climate zone with hot summer and cold winter
The average temperature of the coldest month is -10 to 0 °C, the average temperature of the hottest month is 25 to 30 °C, and the number of days when the average daily temperature is lower than or equal to 5 °C is 0 to 90 days. , the area where the average daily temperature is higher than 25 °C for 40 to 110 days. Buildings in this area must meet summer heat protection requirements and properly take into account winter insulation. According to the climate characteristics and design requirements of this area, it is suitable to set plantation shutters online, movable plantation shutters online or combined movable plantation shutters online, so that the opening degree of the plantation shutters online and the shading angle of the blades can be easily adjusted according to the needs of use in summer. Closing the window and closing the leaves has a certain thermal insulation effect. North-facing windows are provided with window panels, which will increase the winter thermal insulation effect.
In this climate zone, the surface of the material used for the plantation shutters online should be light in color and rough in texture, and such materials have stronger reflection, shading and re-radiation capabilities. If a rough texture cannot be used, a smooth surface can be used.
3.4 Plantation shutters online and materials in areas with hot summer and warm winters
Over the years, the average temperature of the coldest month is more than 10 °C, the average temperature of the hottest month is 25 to 29 °C, and the number of days when the average daily temperature is more than 25 °C is 100 to 200 days. The buildings in this area must fully meet the requirements of heat protection in summer, and generally do not consider heat preservation in winter. Obviously, this climatic area should focus on shading and heat protection. The various external shading methods mentioned above are suitable, and can be customized according to specific needs choose. In addition, a rotatable horizontal shading system is installed on the top floor of the south-facing building, which can provide stable and effective shading for the building in hot seasons. The material used for plantation shutters online in this climate zone should be light in color and rough in texture. If a rough texture cannot be used, a smooth surface can be used.
3.5 Plantation shutters online and materials in mild areas
The average temperature of the coldest month is 0-13 ℃, the average temperature of the hottest month is 18-25 ℃, and the number of days when the average daily temperature is lower than 5 ℃ is 0-90 days. Buildings in this area may not consider summer heat protection requirements, and some areas should pay attention to winter insulation. In this climate zone, taking Kunming as an example, although it is not too hot in summer, the ultraviolet rays are very strong. Therefore, it is very simple and practical to make plantation shutters online with coated transparent materials, which will not affect the light, but also block the ultraviolet rays. In areas that require attention to thermal insulation, thermal insulation windows can be installed in the north to reduce heat loss in winter.
External plantation shutters online are still very rare in the current buildings in my country, but it is gratifying that in some buildings with demonstration effect with the design concept of “high comfort and low energy consumption”, the external shading system has been adopted, although The form is relatively simple. Beijing Fengshang International Apartment and Wanguocheng MOMA International Apartment are equipped with aluminum alloy plantation shutters online and external shading systems. The ventilation windows in some traditional residential buildings have long been used to adjust ventilation with casement plantation shutters online or fixed plantation shutters online, such as some residential buildings in Qingdao.
Plantation shutters online in the attic. It can be said that although the use of external plantation shutters online requires less investment in technology and economy, it can achieve very good results in reducing energy consumption and improving the working environment. Promotion and popularity.
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